Braereth

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Braereth is a collection of four fairly mutually intelligible dialects. Classical Braereth was a Western Romance language spoken in pockets of mountainous areas from the Alps to the Carpathians until the mid-sixteenth century.

For the purposes of this text, we will mainly use the classical spelling of the language (italicized where applicable, e.g. ginte ‘people’); single brackets around words are indicative of the Eomentesa spelling reform (e.g. ⟨jint⟩ ‘people’). Double-brackets indicate Tenibvreth “slang” spellings (e.g. ⟪gint’⟫ ‘people’. Finally, words rendered in the Merineth dialect are enclosed in curved angle brackets (e.g. ⧼zints⧽ ‘people’), which is not a traditional linguistic distinction, but is indicative of the tails of merfolk. Specific differences in the phonologies of the modern dialects are described under Phonology.

Braereth Main Page
Tenibvreth Dialect
Eomentesa Dialect
Merineth Dialect
Braereth Lexicon
(arranged alphabetically)

Braereth Word Hoard
Braereth Categories

Phonology

There are three major dialects of modern Braereth as well as an “archetypal” form which is official, but no one actually speaks. The archetypal form is based on Classical Braereth, which has a reconstructed phonology that differs slightly from the archetype particularly in the realization of the palatals and the lack of certain hypercorrections.

Archetypal Braereth

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar   Vowels Front Back
Plosive p · b t · d   k · ɡ High i u
Affricate · b͡v   ʦ · ʣ ʧ · ʤ   Mid
Fricative f · v θ · [ð] s · [(z)] ʃ · (ʒ) (x) · Low ä
Nasal m n ɲ [ŋ] Diphthongs To Front To Back
Lateral   l ʎ   High ui̯ iu̯
Trill     r [ɾ]   Mid ei̯ eu̯
Approximant w     j   Low ai̯ au̯

* Characters in square brackets are allophones; they are not phonemic.
* Characters in parentheses only occur in borrowings.

Classical Braereth (Reconstructed)

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar   Vowels Front Back
Plosive p · b t · d cç · ɟʝ k · ɡ High i u
Affricate · b͡β   ʦ · ʣ ʨ · ʥ   Mid
Fricative ɸ · β θ · [ð] s · [(z)] ɕ · (ʑ) (x~h) · Low a
Nasal m n ɲ [ŋ] Diphthongs To Front To Back
Lateral   l ʎ   High ui̯ iu̯ , ou̯
Trill     r [ɾ]   Mid ei̯ eu̯
Approximant w, ʋ     j   Low ae̯ au̯

Tenibvreth Dialect

Main article: Tenibvreth (dialect)

The Tenibvreth dialect is marked by a weakening and near-total deletion of final unstressed vowels, a strengthened palatal series, and diverse realizations of the lateral series. A larger amount of the vocabulary is borrowed from Gothic, other Germanic influences, and Slavic languages. For the most part, Tenibvreth is written as standard Braereth, though many words are slightly abbreviated or modified to reflect current pronunciation: mainly omitting the final vowel. When the final vowel is ⟨e⟩ or when the final consonant is palatalized, an apostrophe (⟨’⟩) is used. The exception to this is infinitives of verbs, which always eliminate the final ⟨e⟩ leaving a palatalized ⟨r⟩, but an apostrophe is not used.

Eomentesa Dialect

Main article: Eomentesa (dialect)

The Eomentesa dialect is notable for its lowered (“true”) mid vowels and almost complete loss of the palatal series to unpacking. It has a small number of borrowings from Celtic sources not shared with the other dialects. Some speakers still use the Classical orthography, but a recent spelling reform has been adopted by most speakers of the Eomentesa dialect, and many words bear little resemblance to their Braereth forebears (e.g. tzeiru ‘zero’ becomes Eomentesa sero.

Merineth Dialect

Main article: Merineth (dialect)

The Merineth dialect is the furthest removed of the dialects from Classical Braereth. It has no palatal sounds whatsoever, and contains a number of liquids that appear seemingly spontaneously around certain clusters. Consonant clusters are all but eliminated, and diphthongs are broken up by an insertive ⟨l⟩ or ⟨r⟩. There is a merging of voiced and unvoiced consonants, as well as fortition of certain fricatives into stops. The vowels ⟨e⟩and ⟨o⟩ do not exist in Merineth, and are usually raised to ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩, respectively, or sometimes lowered to ⟨a⟩. The Merineth do not have a formal written language, and usually use the Classical spelling, though some have adopted the Eomentesa spelling reform, as it is a little closer than Classican Braereth to how Merineth is actually pronounced, though there are still vast differences.

Orthographic and Phonemic Mapping

While all dialects of Braereth may be written in the classical orthography, there is also a reform spelling of Eomentesa, presented here in double-brackets (⟪ ⟫) in the Eom. column where the spelling differs from the traditional. Tenibvreth is written in the classical orthography, though final vowels are often elided, and certain folk spellings have become common where pronunciation has changed, e.g. ⟪floura⟫ for flora, or substituting ⟨qv⟩ for ⟨qu⟩ (ecquilju → ⟪ecqvilj⟫) or ⟨i⟩ for ⟨ei⟩ (treice → ⟪tric’⟫). When final vowels are dropped, final ⟨e⟩ will often become ⟨’⟩ to indicate palatalization (grande → ⟪grand’⟫), and sometimes final ⟨tu⟩ will be changed to ⟨th⟩ (tutu → ⟪tuth⟫).

Orth. Phn. Brae. Ten. Mer. Ref. Eom. Example Archetype Classical Tenibvreth Merineth Eomentesa Environment/Notes
a /a/ [a] [a] [æ] ⟨a⟩ [a] ath
‘to’
/aθ/ [aθ] [aθ] [æt’] [aθ]  
/a/ [a] [ə] [a] ⟨a⟩ [a] meva
‘my’
/ˈme.va/ [ˈme.va] [ˈme.və] [ˈme.va] [ˈme.va] /_#
ae /ai̯/ [ae̯] [ai̯] [æ.Le] ⟨é⟩ [e̞ː] laectje
‘milk’
/ˈlai̯k.ʧe/ [ˈlae̯c.ʨe] laect’
[lai̯kɕ]
larets
[ˈla.reʦ]
létx
[le̞ːʧ]
In Merolinian, /l/ is inserted between the vowels of earlier diphthongs. If /l/ is already present in an adjacent syllable, /r/ is inserted instead. If both /l/ and /r/ are present, things get weird.
aou /au̯/ [au̯] [au̯] [æ.Lu] ⟨ao⟩ [a.o̞] saou
‘salt’
/sau̯/ [sau̯] [sau̯] salu
[ˈsæ.lu]
sao
[sa.o̞]
Only occurs word-finally. See additional notes at ⟨ae⟩.
au /au̯/ [au̯] [au̯] [æ.Lu] ⟨au⟩ [au̯] aubvru
‘tree’
/ˈau̯.vru/ [ˈau̯.bβru] aubvr
[au̯vʀ]
alubru
[ˈæ.lu.bru]
auvro
[ˈau.vro̞]
See notes at ⟨ae⟩.
/au̯/ [au̯] [au̯] [æ.Lu] ⟨ao⟩ [a.o̞] normau
‘normal’
/norˈmau̯/ [norˈmau̯] [norˈmau̯] normalu
[norˈmæ.lu]
normao
[no̞rˈma.o̞]
/_#. See additional notes at ⟨ae⟩.
b /b/ [b] [b] [p] ⟨b⟩ [b] baclu
‘stick’
/ˈbak.lu/ [ˈbak.lu] bacl
[bakɬ]
paclu
[ˈpæk.lu]
baclo
[ˈba.klo̞]
 
bl /bl/ [bl] [bɮ] [pl] ⟨bl⟩ [bl] blancu
‘white’
/ˈblaŋ.ku/ [ˈblaŋ.ku] blanc
[bɮaŋx]
plancu
[ˈplæŋ.ku]
blanco
[ˈblaŋ.ko̞]
 
bv /bv/ [bβ] [v] [b] ⟨v⟩ [v] ribveu
‘level’
/riˈveu̯/ [ri.bβeu̯] [riˈveu̯] ribelu
[riˈbe.lu]
reveo
[re̞ˈve̞.o̞]
Only occurs word-internally.
c /k/ [k] [k] [k] ⟨c⟩ [k] couru
‘heart’
/ˈku.ru/ [ˈkou̯.ru] cour
[kuʀ]
[ˈky.ru] coro
[ˈko̞.ro̞]
 
/k/ [k] [x] [k] ⟨c⟩ [k] lacu
‘lake’
/ˈla.ku/ [ˈla.ku] lac
[lax]
[ˈlæ.ku] laco
[ˈla.ko̞]
/_#
/ʧ/ [cç] [ʨ] [ʦ] ⟨tx⟩ [ʧ] dicere
‘to say’
/diˈʧe.re/ [diˈcçe.re] dicer
[diˈʨer̝]
titsel
[tiˈʦel]
ditxer
[diˈʧe̞r]
/_{i,e
/ʧ/ [cç] [ʨ] [s] ⟨x⟩ [ʃ] centrau
‘central’
/ʧenˈtɾau̯/ [cçenˈtɾau̯] [ʨenˈtɾau̯] sentralu
[senˈtɾæ.lu]
xentrao
[ʃe̞nˈtɾa.o̞]
/#_{i,e
cj /ʧ/ [cç] [ʨ] [ʦ] ⟨tx⟩ [ʧ] radjicja
‘root’
/raˈʤi.ʧa/ [raˈʥi.cça] [raˈʥi.ʨə] radzitsa
[ræˈʣi.ʦa]
radjitxa
[raˈʤi.ʧa]
 
/ʧ/ [cç] [ʨ] [s] ⟨x⟩ [ʃ] cjambiare
‘change’
/ʧamˈbja.re/ [cçamˈbja.re] cjambiar
[ʨamˈbjar̝]
sampial
[sæm.piˈal]
xambir
[ʃamˈbir]
/#_
cl /kl/ [kl] [kɬ] [kl] ⟨cl⟩ [kl] clubvra
‘snake’
/ˈklu.vra/ [ˈklu.bβra] clubvr
[kluvʀ]
clubra
[ˈkly.bra]
cluvra
[klu.vra]
 
ctj /kʧ/ [cʨ] [kɕ] [ʦ] ⟨tx⟩ [ʧ] fruictju
‘fruit’
/ˈfrui̯k.ʧu/ [ˈfrui̯c.ʨu] fruict’
[frui̯kɕ]
prútsu
[ˈpruː.ʦu]
frútxo
[fruːʧo̞]
 
d /d/ [d] [d] [t] ⟨d⟩ [d] dente
‘tooth’
/ˈden.te/ [ˈden.te] dent’
[denʨ]
tents
[tenʦ]
dent
[de̞nt]
 
/ð/ [ð] [ð] [t] ⟨d⟩ [ð] cjaudu
‘hot’
/ˈʧau̯.ðu/ [ˈcçau̯.ðu] cjaud
[ʨau̯ð]
salutu
[ˈsæ.lu.tu]
xaudo
[ʃau̯.ðo̞]
/S_S
de /de/ [de] [ʥ] [ʣ] ⟨th⟩ [θ] pide
‘foot'
/ˈpi.ðe/ [ˈpi.ðe] pid’
[piʥ]
pidz
[piʣ]
pith
[piθ]
/_#
dj /ʤ/ [ʥ] [ʥ] [ʣ] ⟨dj⟩ [ʤ] codjax
‘poppy’
/koˈʤa/ [koˈʥa] [koˈʥa] codzà
[koˈʣæ]
codjà
[ko̞ˈʤa]
 
/ʤ/ [ʥ] [ʥ] [z] ⟨j⟩ [ʒ] djurnu
‘day’
/ˈʤur.nu/ [ˈʥur.nu] djurn
[ʥurn]
zurunu
[ˈzy.ru.nu]
jurno
[ˈʒur.no̞]
/#_
e /e/ [e] [∅] [∅] ⟨ ⟩ [∅] crane
‘meat’
/ˈkra.ne/ [ˈkra.ne] cran’
[kraɲ]
cran
[kræn]
crang
[ˈkraŋ]
/_#. ⟨e⟩ is deleted word-finally in all dialects.
/e/ [e] [e] [e] ⟨e⟩ [e̞] estelja
‘star’
/eˈste.ʎa/ [eˈste.ʎa] [eˈste.ɮə] estrelia
[eˈstɾe.li.a]
estelia
[e̞ˈste̞.li.a]
 
ei /ei̯/ [ei̯] [i(ː)] [iː] ⟨e~é⟩ [e̞(ː)] deice
‘ten’
/ˈdei̯.ʧe/ [ˈdei̯.cçe] deic’
[diʨ]
tírts
[tiːrʦ]
détx
[de̞ːʧ]
 
eou /eu̯/ [eu̯] [eu̯] [e.lu] ⟨eo⟩ [e̞.o̞] beou
‘beautiful’
/ˈbeu̯/ [beu̯] [beu̯] pelu
[ˈpe.lu]
beo
[ˈbe̞.o̞]
Only occurs word-finally.
eu /eu̯/ [eu̯] [eu̯] [e.lu] ⟨eu⟩ [e̞u̯] seuva
‘forest’
/ˈseu̯.va/ [ˈseu̯.va] [ˈseu̯və] seluba
[ˈse.lu.ba]
[ˈse̞u̯.va]  
f /f/ [ɸ] [f] [p] ⟨f⟩ [f] folja
‘leaf’
/ˈfo.ʎa/ [ˈfo.ʎa] [ˈfo.ɮə] polia
[ˈpo.li.a]
folia
[ˈfo̞.li.a]
 
fl /fl/ [ɸl] [fɬ] [pl] ⟨fl⟩ [fl] flora
‘flower’
/ˈflo.ra/ [ˈflo.ra] floura
[ˈfɬu.rə]
plora
[ˈplo.ra]
[ˈflo̞.ra]  
g /ɡ/ [ɡ] [ɡ] [k] ⟨g⟩ [ɡ] grostu
‘thick’
/ˈɡro.stu/ [ˈɡro.stu] grost
[ˈɡrost]
crostu
[ˈkro.stu]
grosto
[ˈɡro̞s.to̞]
 
/ʤ/ [ɟʝ] [ʥ] [ʣ] ⟨dj⟩ [ʤ] tragere
‘to pull’
/tɾaˈʤe.re/ [tɾaˈɟʝe.re] trager
[tɾaˈʥer̝]
tradzel
[tɾaˈʣel]
tradjer
[tɾaˈʤe̞r]
/_{i,e
/ʤ/ [ɟʝ] [ʥ] [z] ⟨j⟩ [ʒ] gindrau
‘general’
/ʤinˈdɾau̯/ [ɟʝinˈdɾau̯] [ʥinˈdɾau̯] zintralu
[zinˈtɾæ.lu]
jindrao
[ʒinˈdɾa.o̞]
/#_{i,e
gj /ʤ/ [ɟʝ] [ʥ] [ʣ] ⟨dj⟩ [ʤ] obligjare
‘to compel’
/o.bliˈʤa.re/ [o.bliˈɟʝa.re] obligjar
[o.bliˈʥar̝]
oplidzal
[o.pliˈʣal]
oblidjar
[o̞b.liˈʤar]
 
/ʤ/ [ɟʝ] [ʥ] [z] ⟨z⟩ [ʒ] gjalu
‘yellow’
/ˈʤa.lu/ [ˈɟʝa.lu] gjal
[ʥaɮ]
zialu
[ziˈa.lu]
jalo
[ˈʒa.lo̞]
/#_
gl /ɡl/ [ɡl] [ɡɮ] [kl] ⟨gl⟩ [ɡl] glacja
‘ice’
/ˈɡla.ʧa/ [ˈɡla.cça] [ˈɡɮa.ʨə] clatsa
[ˈklæ.ʦa]
glatxa
[ˈɡla.ʧa]
 
gn /ŋn/ [ŋn] [ŋn] [ŋkl] ⟨ngan⟩ [ŋɡan] magnu
‘great’
/ˈmaŋ.nu/ [ˈmaŋ.nu] magn
[maŋn]
manclu
[ˈmæŋ.klu]
mangano
[ˈmaŋ.ɡa.no̞]
 
gne /ŋne/ [ŋne] [ŋɲ] [ŋkle] ⟨ng⟩ [ŋ] seigne
‘slow’
/ˈsei̯ŋ.ne/ [ˈsei̯ŋ.ne] seign’
[siŋɲ]
sincle
[ˈsiŋ.kle]
séng
[se̞ːŋ]
/_#
gnj /ŋɲ/ [ŋɲ] [ŋɲ] [ŋkli] ⟨ni⟩ [ni] ignju
‘fire
/ˈiŋ.ɲu/ [ˈiŋ.ɲu] ign’
[iŋɲ]
incliu
[ˈiŋ.kli.u]
inio
[ˈi.ni.o̞]
 
i /i/ [i] [i] [i] ⟨i⟩ [i] iljis
‘they’
/ˈi.ʎis/ [ˈi.ʎis] [ˈi.ɮis] ilis
[ˈi.lis]
ilis
[ˈi.lis]
 
/i/ [i] [i] [i] ⟨e⟩ [e̞] midju
‘half’
/ˈmi.ʤu/ [ˈmi.ʥu] mid’
[ˈmiʥ]
midzu
[ˈmi.ʣu]
medjo
[ˈme̞.ʤo̞]
Intermittently.
/j/ [j] [j] [i.] ⟨i⟩ [i.] iecru
‘liver’
/ˈje.kru/ [ˈje.kru] iecr
[jekʀ]
[iˈe.kru] iecro
[iˈe̞.kro̞]
/_V (!_/u/)
iu /iu̯/ [iu̯] [iu̯] [i.u] ⟨iu⟩ [i.u] fluviu
‘river’
/ˈflu.viw/ [ˈflu.viu̯] [ˈfɬu.viu̯] plubiu
[ˈply.bi.u]
fluvio
[ˈflu.vi.o̞]
 
/iu̯/ [ju] [iu̯] [i.u] ⟨iu⟩ [i.u] iustu
‘right’
/ˈiw.stu/ [ˈiu̯.stu] iust
[iu̯st]
[iˈy.stu] iusto
[iˈu.sto̞]
/#_
l /l/ [l] [l] [l] ⟨l⟩ [l] lape
‘stone’
/ˈla.pe/ [ˈla.pe] lap’
[lap]
lap
[læp]
lap
[lap]
 
lj /ʎ/ [ʎ] [ɮ] [li] ⟨li⟩ [li] aljis
‘others’
/ˈa.ʎis/ [ˈa.ʎis] [ˈa.ɮis] alis
[ˈæ.lis]
alis
[ˈa.lis]
 
/ʎ/ [ʎ] [ʎ] [li] ⟨li⟩ [li] acelju
‘bird’
/aˈʧe.ʎu/ [aˈcçe.ʎu] acel’
[aˈʨeʎ]
atseliu
[æˈʦe.li.u]
atxelio
[aˈʧe̞.li.o̞]
/_#
m /m/ [m] [m] [m] ⟨m⟩ [m] mourire
‘to die’
/muˈri.re/ [muˈri.re] mourir
[muˈrir̝]
muril
[myˈril]
morir
[mo̞ˈrir]
 
n /n/ [n] [n] [n] ⟨n⟩ [n] nascere
‘to be born’
/nasˈʧe.re/ [nasˈcçe.re] nascer
[nasˈʨer̝]
nastsel
[næsˈʦel]
naxer
[naˈʃe̞r]
 
nc /ŋk/ [ŋk] [ŋk] [ŋk] ⟨nc⟩ [ŋk] ginclu
‘knee’
/ˈʤiŋ.klu/ [ˈɟʝiŋ.klu] gincl
[ʥiŋkɬ]
zinclu
[ˈziŋ.klu]
jinclo
[ˈʒiŋ.klo̞]
 
ncj /nʧ/ [ɲcç] [ŋkɕ] [nʦ] ⟨ntx⟩ [nʧ] louncjanu
‘far’
/lunˈʧa.nu/ [lunˈcça.nu] louncjan
[luŋˈkɕan]
luntsanu
[lynˈʦa.nu]
luntxano
[lunˈʧa.no̞]
 
nctj /ŋkʧ/ [ɲcʨ] [ŋkɕ] [nʦ] ⟨ntx⟩ [nʧ] vinctje
‘twenty’
/ˈviŋk.ʧe/ [ˈviŋk.ʨe] vinct’
[viŋkɕ]
bints
[binʦ]
vintx
[vinʧ]
 
nde /nde/ [nde] [nʥ] [nʣ] ⟨ndj⟩ [nʤ] grande
‘big'
/ˈgran.de/ [ˈgran.de] grand’
[ɡranʥ]
crandz
[krænʣ]
grand
[ɡrand]
/_#
ng /ŋɡ/ [ŋɡ] [ŋɡ] [ŋk] ⟨ng⟩ [ŋɡ] loungu
‘long’
/ˈluŋ.ɡu/ [ˈluŋ.ɡu] loung
[luŋɡ]
luncu
[ˈlyŋ.ku]
longo
[ˈlo̞ŋ.ɡo̞]
 
/nʤ/ [ɲɟʝ] [ŋɡʑ] [nʣ] ⟨ndj⟩ [nʤ] pungere
‘to stab’
/punˈʤe.re/ [punˈɟʝe.re] punger
[puŋ.ɡʑer̝]
pundzel
[pynˈʣel]
pundjer
[punˈʤe̞r]
/_{i,e
ngj /nʤ/ [ɲɟʝ] [ŋɡʑ] [nʣ] ⟨ndj⟩ [nʤ] mengjare
‘to eat’
/meɲˈʤa.re/ [meɲˈɟʝa.re] mengjar
[meŋˈɡʑar̝]
mendzal
[menˈʣal]
mandjar
[manˈʤar]
 
nj /ɲ/ [ɲ] [ɲ] [ni] ⟨ni⟩ [ni] anju
‘year’
/ˈa.ɲu/ [ˈa.ɲu] an’
[aɲ]
aniu
[ˈæ.ni.u]
anio
[ˈa.ni.o̞]
 
nje /ɲe/ [ɲe] [ɲ] [n] ⟨ng⟩ [ŋ] cjanje
‘dog’
/ˈʧa.ɲe/ [ˈcça.ɲe] cjan’
[ʨaɲ]
san
[san]
xang
[ʃaŋ]
/_#
nte /nte/ [nte] [ɲʨ] [nʦ] ⟨ntx⟩ [nʧ] infante
‘child'
/inˈfan.te/ [inˈfan.te] infant’
[iɱˈfaɲʨ]
impants
[imˈpænʦ]
infant
[iɱˈfant]
/_#
ntz /nʦ/ [nʦ] [nʦ] [nʦ] ⟨ntz⟩ [nts] quintzante
‘fifty'
/kwinˈʦan.te/ [ku̯inˈʦan.te] qvintzant’
[kʋinˈʦanʨ]
quitsants
[ku.inˈʦanʦ]
cuintzant
[kwinˈʦant]
 
o /o/ [o] [o] [o] ⟨o⟩ [o̞] olja
‘oil’
/ˈo.ʎa/ [ˈo.ʎa] [ˈo.ʎə] olia
[ˈo.li.a]
olia
[ˈo̞.li.a]
 
ou /ou̯/ [ou̯] [u] [y] ⟨o⟩ [o̞] ouvu
‘egg’
/ˈu.vu/ [ˈu.vu] ouv
[uv]
ubu
[ˈy.bu]
ovo
[ˈo̞.vo̞]
 
p /p/ [p] [p] [p] ⟨p⟩ [p] pelju
‘hair’
/ˈpe.ʎu/ [ˈpe.ʎu] pel’
[peʎ]
peliu
[ˈpe.li.u]
pelio
[ˈpe̞.li.o̞]
 
pl /pl/ [pl] [pɬ] [pl] ⟨pl⟩ [pl] pluvia
‘rain’
/ˈplu.vja/ [ˈplu.vja] [ˈpɬu.vjə] plubia
[ˈply.bi.a]
pluvia
[ˈplu.vi.a]
 
qh /x/ [x] [χ] [ʀ] ⟨h⟩ [ç] aqhma
‘life force’
/ˈax.ma/ [ˈax.ma] [ˈaχ.mə] [ˈæʀ.ma] ahma
[ˈaç.ma]
Only in borrowings.
/x/ [h] [χ] [χ] ⟨ ⟩ [∅] qheru
‘deer’
/ˈxe.ru/ [ˈxe.ru] qher
[χeʀ]
[ˈχe.ru] ero
[ˈe̞.ro̞]
/_{i,e. Only in borrowings.
qu /kw/ [kw] [kʋ] [ku.] ⟨cu⟩ [ku.] quei
‘what’
/kwei̯/ [kwei̯] qvei
[kʋi]
qui
[ˈku.i]
cue
[ˈku.e̞]
 
/kw/ [kw] [k] [ku] ⟨cu⟩ [ku.] equou
‘horse’
/ˈe.kwu/ [ˈe.kwu] ecu
[ˈe.ku]
ecú
[ˈe.kuː]
ecuo
[ˈe̞.ku.o̞]
/_{u
r /r/ [r] [r] [r] ⟨r⟩ [r] ridere
‘to laugh’
/riˈde.re/ [riˈde.re] rider
[riˈðer̝]
ritel
[riˈtel]
rider
[riˈðe̞r]
 
/r/ [ɾ] [ɾ] [ɾ] ⟨r⟩ [ɾ] trei(di)ce
‘thirteen’
/ˈtɾei̯.ʧe/ [ˈtɾei̯.ði.cçe] treic’
[tɾiʨ]
trits
[tɾiʦ]
tretx
[tɾe̞ʧ]
/[+dnt]_
/r/ [r] [ʀ] [r] ⟨r⟩ [r] magru
‘thin’
/ˈpa.tɾu/ [ˈpa.tɾu] magr
[maɡʀ]
macru
[ˈma.kru]
magro
[ˈma.gro̞]
/_#
re /re/ [re] [r̝] [r] ⟨r⟩ [r] abvere
‘to have’
/aˈve.re/ [aˈve.re] abver
[aˈver̝]
abel
[aˈbel]
aver
[aˈve̞r]
/_#
rj /r̝/ [r̝] [r̝] [ri] ⟨ri⟩ [ri] terja
‘earth’
/ˈte.r̝a/ [ˈte.r̝a] [ˈte.r̝ə] teria
[ˈte.ri.a]
teria
[ˈte̞.ri.a]
 
s /s/ [s] [s] [s] ⟨s⟩ [s] secjare
‘to cut’
/seˈʧa.re/ [seˈcça.re] secjar
[seˈʨar̝]
setsal
[seˈʦal]
setxar
[se̞ˈʧar]
 
/s/ [z] [z] [z] ⟨z⟩ [z] espousa
‘wife’
/eˈspu.za/ [eˈspu.za] [eˈspu.zə] espuza
[eˈspy.za]
espuza
[e̞ˈspu.za]
/V_V
sc /sʧ/ [scç] [sʨ] [sʦ] ⟨x⟩ [ʃ] escire
‘to know’
/esˈʧi.re/ [esˈcçi.re] escir
[esˈʨir̝]
estsir
[esˈʦir]
exir
[e̞ˈʃir]
/_{i,e
scj /sʧ/ [scç] [sʨ] [sʦ] ⟨x⟩ [ʃ] escjavare
‘to dig’
/es.ʧaˈve.re/ [es.cçaˈve.re] escjavar
[es.ʨaˈvar̝]
estsabar
[es.ʦaˈbar]
exavar
[e̞ˈʃa.var]
 
sj /ʃ/ [ɕ] [ɕ] [s] ⟨xi⟩ [ʃ] sji
‘yes’
/ˈʃi/ [ˈɕi] [ɕi] si
[si]
xi
[ʃi]
 
t /t/ [t] [t] [t] ⟨t⟩ [t] tutu
‘all’
/ˈtu.tu/ [ˈtu.tu] tuth
[tuθ]
[ˈty.tu] tuto
[ˈtu.to̞]
 
te /te/ [te] [ʨ] [ʦ] ⟨t⟩ [t] claritate
‘clarity'
/kla.riˈta.te/ [kla.riˈta.te] claritat’
[kɬa.riˈtaʨ]
claritats
[kla.riˈtaʦ]
claritat
[kla.riˈtat]
/_#
th /θ/ [θ] [θ] [t’] ⟨th⟩ [θ] eth
‘and’
/eθ/ [eθ] [eθ] et’
[et’]
[e̞θ]  
tj /ʧ/ [ʨ] [ʨ] [ʦ] ⟨tx⟩ [ʧ] setje
‘seven’
/ˈse.ʧe/ [ˈse.ʨe] set’
[seʨ]
sets
[seʦ]
setx
[se̞ʧ]
 
tz /ʦ/ [ʦ] [ʦ] [s] ⟨s⟩ [s] tzince
‘five’
/ˈʦin.ʧe/ [ˈʦiɲ.cçe] tzinc’
[ʦinʨ]
sints
[sinʦ]
sintx
[sinʧ]
/#_
/ʣ/ [ʣ] [dz] [ʣ] ⟨dz⟩ [ʣ] pitzitu
‘small’
/piˈʣi.tu/ [piˈʣi.tu] pitzith
[piˈʣiθ]
pidzitu
[piˈʣi.tu]
pedzito
[pe̞ˈʣi.to̞]
/S_S (!/n/_)
u /u/ [u] [u] [y] ⟨u⟩ [u] unce
‘eleven’
/ˈun.ʧe/ [ˈuɲ.cçe] unc’
[unʨ]
unts
[ynʦ]
untx
[unʧ]
 
/u/ [u] [u] [y] ⟨o⟩ [o̞] uricla
‘ear’
/uˈri.kla/ [uˈri.kla] [uˈrikɬa] uricla
[yˈri.kla]
oricla
[o̞ˈri.kla]
Always /_#, intermittently otherwise
ui /uj/ [ui̯] [ui̯] [uː] ⟨ú⟩ [uː] luictjare
‘to fight’
/lujkˈʧa.re/ [lui̯kˈʨa.re] luictjar
[lui̯kˈɕar̝]
lútsal
[luːˈʦal]
lútxar
[luːˈʧar]
 
/uj/ [ui̯] [vi] [uː] ⟨ú⟩ [uː] uictjou
‘eight’
/ˈujk.ʧu/ [ˈui̯k.ʨu] victjou
[ˈvik.ɕu]
útso
[ˈuːʦo]
útxo
[ˈuːʧo̞]
/#_
v /v/ [β] [v] [b] ⟨v⟩ [v] voulere
‘to want’
/vuˈle.re/ [vou̯ˈle.re] vuler
[vuˈler̝]
burel
[buˈrel]
voler
[vo̞ˈle̞r]
 
x /ˈ/       ⟨x̀⟩   iljax
‘there’
/iˈʎa/ [iˈʎa] [iˈɮa] alià
[a.liˈa]
alià
[a.liˈa]
Indicates unexpected stress. (Eomentesa reform script uses a grave diacritic.)
z /z/ [z] [ʑ] [z] ⟨z⟩ [z] quazina
‘quiver (of arrows)’
/ˈkwa.zi.na/ [ˈkwa.zi.na] qvazina
[ˈkʋa.ʑnə]
[kuˈa.zi.na] cuazina
[kuˈa.zi.na]
Only in borrowings and the digraph ⟨tz⟩.
zj /ʒ/ [ʑ] [ʑ] [z] ⟨j⟩ [ʒ] frezjire
‘to deceive'
/freˈʒi.re/ [freˈʑi.re] frezjir
[freˈʑir̝]
prezil
[preˈzil]
frejir
[fre̞ˈʒir]
Only in borrowings.

Pronouns

  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.  
1sg eou meou mei me, m’ I, my, (to) me, me
2sg tu teou tei te, t’ thou, thy, (to) thee, thee
3sg.masc ilj seou lei le, l’ he, his, (to) him, him
3sg.fem ilja lae la, l’ she, her, (to) her, her
3sg.refl - sei se, s’ himself, herself, itself, &c
1pl nous(autris) noustru nous ne, n’ we all, our, (to) us, us
2pl vous(autris) voustru vous ve, v’ you all, your, (to) you, you
3pl.masc iljis louru lour ljis they, their, (to) them, them
3pl.fem iljes ljes

Determiners

Articles

The Definite Article

  Sing. Sing. (_V) Plur.
Masculine lu
lu lape
‘the stone’
l’
l’acelju
‘the bird’
lis
lis viris
‘the men’
Feminine la
la mage
‘the witch’
l’
l’estelja
‘the star’
les
les muljeres
‘the women’

The Indefinite Article

  Sing. Sing. (_V) Plur.
Masculine un
un lape
‘a stone’
n’
n’acelju
‘a bird’
unis
unis viris
‘some men’
Feminine una
una mage
‘a witch’
n’
n’estelja
‘a star’
unes
unes muljeres
‘some women’

Numerals

The “teen” numbers (11-19) are highly irregular. In Classical Braereth, these all ended with ‑dice, which in the modern languages has been contracted to ‑ce.

While ⟨vinctjeth-uicjtou⟩ is the literary standard, none of the dialects actually uses this form: Classical Braereth used an older form ⟨vinctje-eth-uictjou⟩ where the conjunction had not been assimilated into the first element; Tenibvreth does not retain the –th of the conjunction because uictjou begins with a consonant sound (it is sometimes written as ⟨vinctje-victjou⟩); Eomentesa’s reform orthography spells it as ⟨vintx-eth-útxo⟩.

tzeiru 0 deice (archaic) 10 vinctje 20 tzeiru 0
unu 1 unce undice 11 vinctjeth-un 21 deice 10
dous 2 douce doudice 12 vinctje-dous 22 vinctje 20
treis 3 treice treidice 13 vinctje-treis 23 treinte 30
quatru 4 quarce quardice 14 vinctje-quatru 24 quatrante 40
tzince 5 quince quindice 15 vinctje-tzince 25 quintzante 50
seis 6 seice seidice 16 vinctje-seis 26 sesante 60
setje 7 setece setedice 17 vinctje-setje 27 setante 70
uictjou 8 uictece uictedice 18 vinctjeth-uictjou 28 uictante 80
nouve 9 nouce noudice 19 vinctje-nouve 29 nounante 90